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AUTHOR
Eric P. Prostko
Professor and Extension Weed Specialist
University of Georgia

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
  1. Herbicide-Resistant Weeds
  2. Herbicide Resistance Definition
  3. Herbicide Resistance Types
  4. Herbicide Resistance Around the World
  5. Herbicide Resistant Weeds Top 3 Countries
  6. Herbicide Resistant Weeds- Important Species Worldwide
  7. Herbicide Resistance in Georgia
  8. Herbicide Resistance- How does it occur?
  9. Herbicide Resistant Weeds- Selection Pressure
  10. Herbicide Resistant Weeds- Pollen Drift
  11. In-Field Palmer Amaranth Pollen Movement - Macon Co. 2006-2007
  12. Why Are Plants Resistant to Herbicides? Mechanisms
  13. Altered Site of Action
  14. Glyphosate resistance resulting from gene amplification.
  15. The Beginning of Weed Resistance
  16. Chronological Increase in Resistant Weeds Globally
  17. Herbicide Resistant Weeds- By Mode of Action
  18. What does ALS mean?
  19. ALS-Resistance Around the World
  20. Commonly Used ALS Herbicides
  21. GA Confirmed ALS-Resistant Palmer Sites
  22. Adoption of genetically engineered crops in the United States, 1996-2013
  23. Glyphosate Resistance Around the World= 24 species
  24. Glyphosate-Resistant Palmer Amaranth in GA
  25. PS-II Resistance
  26. Number of Resistant Species to Individual Active Herbicides
  27. 2007, 2008, 2010 Macon County Triazine-Resistance Survey
  28. Herbicide Resistance Should Only Be Suspected When ...
  29. MSMA Resistant Cocklebur in NC
  30. Causes of Herbicide Failures
  31. Herbicide Resistant Weeds- Strategies for Control/Prevention
  32. Tillage and Pigweed
  33. Conclusions - Tillage/Clover
  34. Weed Seed Bank Management
  35. The influence of burial duration and depth on the viability of Palmer amaranth seeds in Georgia (2007-2011).
  36. How long does resistance last in absence of further selection pressure?
  37. Does the use of reduced rates influence the rate of herbicide resistance development ?
  38. Why Palmer Amaranth?
  39. More Information About Herbicide Resistance



SLIDE CONTENTS
  1. Herbicide-Resistant Weeds November 2013
  2. Herbicide Resistance Definition inherited ability of a weed or crop biotype to survive a herbicide application to which the original population was susceptible. Biotype = a group of plants within a species that has biological traits that are not common to the population as a whole.
  3. Herbicide Resistance Types 3 Single Herbicide Resistance Resistant to only one herbicide Cross Herbicide Resistance Resistant to two or more herbicide families with same mechanism of action Single resistance mechanism Multiple Herbicide Resistance Resistant to two or more herbicides with different mechanisms of action May be the result of two or more different resistance mechanisms
  4. Herbicide Resistance Around the World 404 Unigue Cases (species X site of action) 220 species 130 dicots 90 monocots Top 3 Modes of Action ALS Inhibitors PS II Inhibitors ACCase Inhibitors Source: Heap, I. The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. Online. Internet. November 15, 2013 .
  5. Herbicide Resistant Weeds Top 3 Countries Cases (#) International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds, November 15, 2013
  6. Herbicide Resistant Weeds Important Species - Worldwide
  7. Herbicide Resistance in Georgia Source: International Survey Of Herbicide Resistant Weeds, October 2013.
  8. Herbicide Resistance How does it occur?
  9. Herbicide Resistant Weeds Selection Pressure Source: J.L. Gunsolus. Herbicide Resistant Weeds. 1998. North Central Region Extension Publication 468.
  10. Herbicide Resistant Weeds Pollen Drift Off-site movement (wind, gravity, insects) of resistance trait through pollen Pollen from resistant male fertilizes susceptible female to produce resistant progeny UGA researchers have documented GR-trait movement of at least 900 (Palmer amaranth). Palmer Amaranth Pollen Source: Dr. Lynn Sosnoskie
  11. In-Field Palmer Amaranth Pollen Movement Macon Co. 2006-2007
  12. Why Are Plants Resistant to Herbicides? Mechanisms altered site of action most common enhanced metabolism sequestration Gene amplification
  13. Altered Site of Action Source: J.L. Gunsolus. Herbicide Resistant Weeds. 1998. North Central Region Extension Publication 468.
  14. Glyphosate resistance resulting from gene amplification. Powles S B PNAS 2010;107:955-956 2010 by National Academy of Sciences Susceptible Resistant
  15. The Beginning of Weed Resistance 1968 (Washington) nursery crops common groundsel atrazine simazine Photo: The Missouri Flora Web-Site
  16. Herbicide Resistant Weeds By Mode of Action
  17. What does ALS mean? Acetolactate synthase (ALS) Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) chloroplast enzyme needed to form certain amino acids Valine, leucine, isoleucine Herbicide families Imidazolinone, sulfonanalide, benzoates, sulfonylurea
  18. ALS-Resistance Around the World 133 species have developed ALS-resistance world-wide Insensitive ALS enzyme 26 species in U.S. Why? very popular low use rates environment friendly single sites of action major MOA development in late 1980s early 1990s
  19. Commonly Used ALS Herbicides Accent Ally/Cimarron Beyond Cadre Classic Envoke Express Finesse FirstRate Harmony Extra Maverick Pro Osprey Permit/Sandea Powerflex Pursuit Python Staple Steadfast Q Strongarm
  20. GA Confirmed ALS-Resistant Palmer Sites
  21. Glyphosate Resistance Around the World 24 species rigid ryegrass (1996) goosegrass (1997) Horseweed (2000) Italian ryegrass (2001) Buckhorn Plainain (2003) Hairy fleabane (2003) Ragweed parthenium (2004) Common ragweed (2004) Giant ragweed (2004) Johnsongrass (2005) Common waterhemp (2005) Palmer amaranth (2005) Sourgrass (2005) Kochia (2007) Junglerice (2007) Gramilla mansa (2008) Liverseedgrass (2008) Perennial ryegrass (2008) Sumatran fleabane (2009) Annual bluegrass (2010) Australina fingergrass (2010) Tropical sprangletop (2010) Ripgut brome (2011) Spiny amaranth (2012)
  22. Glyphosate-Resistant Palmer Amaranth in GA* 2004 1 county 2005 2 counties 2006 7 counties 2007 11 counties 2008 18 counties 2009 13 counties 2010 16 counties Total = 76 counties *Greenhouse screening has been conducted on each site. 2011 8 counties
  23. PS-II Resistance Photosystem (PS) II Photosynthesis electron transfer disruption 71 species worldwide 26 species in US Atrazine, simazine
  24. 2007, 2008, 2010 Macon County Triazine-Resistance Survey ALS + GLY + ATZ
  25. Herbicide Resistance Should Only Be Suspected When .... other causes of herbicide failure have been ruled out. the same herbicide or herbicides with the same mode of action have been used year after year. one weed that is normally controlled is not controlled while other weeds are. healthy weeds are mixed with controlled weeds (same species) a patch of uncontrolled weed is spreading.
  26. MSMA Resistant Cocklebur in NC (Dr. Alan York NCSU))
  27. Causes of Herbicide Failures weed size** moisture temperature humidity rate application method calibration others All possible reasons for poor performance should be investigated before considering the possibility of resistance!!!
  28. Herbicide Resistant Weeds Strategies for Control/Prevention proactive vs. reactive utilize other weed control tactics tillage, cultivation, row patterns, cover crops, etc. rotate herbicides with different MOA rotate crops scout fields prevent seed production weed seed bank management clean tillage and harvesting equipment
  29. Tillage and Pigweed Bottom Plow Chisel Plow Source: David Hall (Farmer) and Wade Green, Twiggs Co. CEC, April 22, 2010
  30. UGA Weed Science Research
  31. Weed Seed Bank Management How many are produced? How many will survive? seed predation seed decay seed dormancy seed size depth of emergence How will changes in practices influence weed seed bank? Palmer Amaranth Seed
  32. The influence of burial duration and depth on the viability of Palmer amaranth seeds in Georgia (2007-2011). Sosnoskie, L.M., T.M. Webster and A.S. Culpepper. 2013. Glyphosate resistance does not affect Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) seedbank longevity. Weed Science. 61:283-288.
  33. How long does resistance last in absence of further selection pressure? Andrews and Morrison (1997) - Canada DNA resistant green foxtail % of resistant seeds after 7 years initial resistance was at least 90% Source: Weed Technology (1997): 11:369-372.
  34. Does the use of reduced rates influence the rate of herbicide resistance development ? yes!! a bad idea!!!! Herbicides should be used at recommended rates that ensure high weed mortality to minimize the likelihood of minor herbicide resistance traits leading to rapid herbicide resistance evolution Manalil et al., 2011. Weed Science 59:210-217
  35. Why Palmer Amaranth? 38 species of Amaranthus in U.S. 27 species found in SE grows faster than other pigweeds (1-2 per day!!) more competitive than other pigweeds prolific seed producer Up to 1,000,000 seeds/plant 9-12 WAE 2 generations/year herbicide tolerance reduced tillage
  36. More Information About Herbicide Resistance Herbicide Resistance Action Committee (HRAC) http://www.hracglobal.com/ International Survey of Resistant Weeds http://www.weedscience.org/summary/home.aspx