Slide Presentation

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AUTHOR
Stanley Culpepper
Professor and Extension Weed Specialist
University of Georgia

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
  1. Comparing Volatility of Three Forms of 2,4-D when Applied in the Field
  2. Future Technology Herbicide Cost
  3. Sensitivity of Non 2,4-D Resistant Cotton to 2,4-D
  4. Sensitivity of Vegetables to 2,4-D
  5. 2011 GA Vegetable Facts
  6. Many of these crops are grown in the same areas often by the same growers.
  7. Off Target Movement Concern
  8. Off Target Movement Concern
  9. Objective
  10. Map 2010
  11. Map 2011
  12. Potted cotton plants placed in all directions @ 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 ft
  13. Potted plants each year = 1728 Four plants per location for 48 hrs, 1st 24 h, 2nd 24 h.
  14. Map 2011
  15. Methods
  16. Field
  17. Potted Plants
  18. Controls for Methods
  19. 2010 Temperature (F)
  20. 2011 Temperature (F)
  21. Visual Cotton Injury
  22. Cotton Injury (%) as Influenced by Distance. In-field 48 hours. 2010.
  23. Cotton Injury (%) as Influenced by Distance. In-field 48 hours. 2011.
  24. Ester and Choline
  25. Cotton Injury (%) from Ester as Influenced by Distance & Time. 2010.
  26. Cotton Injury (%) as Influenced by Duration In-Field. 2011.
  27. Cotton Injury (%) by Ester as Influenced by Direction. In-field 48 hours.
  28. 2011 Wind Direction. Day of Application
  29. Volatility Injury to Cotton: Tunnel Data
  30. Cotton Injury (%) as Influenced by Tunnel. 2010.
  31. Cotton Injury (%) as Influenced by Tunnel. 2011.
  32. Conclusions
  33. Comments?



SLIDE CONTENTS
  1. Comparing Volatility of Three Forms of 2,4-D when Applied in the Field Culpepper, Richburg, Sosnoskie, Braxton
  2. Future Technology Herbicide Cost of $39/A Technology of Today Herbicide Cost of $59/A
  3. Sensitivity of Non 2,4-D Resistant Cotton to 2,4-D 2,4-D resistant
  4. Sensitivity of Vegetables to 2,4-D
  5. 2011 GA Vegetable Facts Approximately 200,000 acres 40 different vegetables grown 3rd largest vegetable producing state for A Farm Gate Value: $1,200,000,000
  6. Many of these crops are grown in the same areas often by the same growers.
  7. Off Target Movement Concern Physical drift Volatility
  8. Off Target Movement Concern Physical drift = related to someone most likely not following label recommendations Volatility = one can do everything perfect and there can still be a serious issue
  9. Objective Volatility needs to be eliminated or at least know exactly how far it could move 2,4-D Choline 2,4-D Amine 2,4-D Ester
  10. 2,4-D Ester 2,4-D Amine 2,4-D Choline N 2010 Sunbelt Ag Expo
  11. N 2011 2,4-D Ester 2,4-D Amine 2,4-D Choline Sunbelt Ag Expo
  12. Potted cotton plants placed in all directions @ 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 ft Treated area = 90 foot by 90 foot
  13. Potted plants each year = 1728 Four plants per location for 48 hrs, 1st 24 h, 2nd 24 h.
  14. N 2011 Sunbelt Ag Expo
  15. Methods Mix location: off site Rate: 2 lb ae/A glyphosate + 2 lb ae/A 2,4-D Application: FF 11002 DG, 25 PSI, 15 GPA Time of day: before 10 am Soil: 88% sand, 12% silt; pre-irrigated
  16. Controls for Methods Truck ride (2010, 2011): no damage Herbicide application (2011): no damage Plant contact (2011): no damage
  17. 2010 Temperature (F) Max soil temp range 99-103 F; mix of clouds and sun; max sustained wind 8 mph. Application Sept 9. 8 am 7 am
  18. 2011 Temperature (F) Application Aug 30. Max soil temp ranged 106-113 F; completely sunny; max sustained wind 11 mph. 8 am 7 am
  19. Visual Cotton Injury Heights Nodes
  20. Cotton Injury (%) as Influenced by Distance. In-field 48 hours. 2010. 53 45 38 20 5 0 5 10 40 160 20 80 Data pooled over direction. Distance = Ester = Amine = Choline Form x distance (P = 0.05) Ester > Amine, Choline, for all distances Ester: 5 > 10 > 20 > 40 > 80 > 160 Amine: 5 > 10 > 20160 Amine 510 > Choline 5-10
  21. Cotton Injury (%) as Influenced by Distance. In-field 48 hours. 2011. 73 69 58 38 20 4 5 10 40 160 20 80 = Ester Data pooled over direction. = Amine Distance = Choline Form x distance (P = 0.05) Ester > Amine, Choline, for all distances Ester: 5 > 10 > 20 > 40 > 80 > 160 Amine: 5 > 10 > 20160 Amine 510 > Choline 5-10
  22. Choline Ester
  23. Cotton Injury (%) from Ester as Influenced by Distance & Time. 2010. 5 10 40 20 80 = 0-48 h Data pooled over direction. = 0-24 h = 24-48 h Distance (ft) Time x distance (P = 0.05) 0-48 h = 0-24 h = 24-48 h, for all distances
  24. Cotton Injury (%) as Influenced by Duration In-Field. 2011. 5 10 40 20 80 = 0-48 h Data pooled over direction. = 0-24 h = 24-48 h Distance (ft) Time x distance (P = 0.05) 0-48 h = 0-24 h = 24-48 h, for all distances
  25. Cotton Injury (%) by Ester as Influenced by Direction. In-field 48 hours. N NE SE NW E Data pooled over distance S SW W Direction = 2010 = 2011
  26. S SE SW E W N NE NW Application to 2 pm (0 to 5.5 mph) 2 to 5 pm (4-11 mph) 5 to 9 pm (11 to 0 mph) 2011 Wind Direction. Day of Application
  27. Volatility Injury to Cotton: Tunnel Data 20 plants assigned a location number
  28. Cotton Injury (%) as Influenced by Tunnel. 2010. Ester Amine Choline = 0-48 h = 0-24 h = 24-48 h Data pooled over 20 plants for each herbicide and time interval. 0-48 h: Ester > Amine > Choline 0-24 h: Ester > Amine > Choline 24-48 h: Ester > Amine = Choline
  29. Cotton Injury (%) as Influenced by Tunnel. 2011. Ester Amine Choline = 0-48 h Data pooled over 20 plants for each herbicide and time interval. = 0-24 h = 24-48 h 0-48 h: Ester > Amine > Choline 0-24 h: Ester > Amine = Choline 24-48 h: Ester > Amine = Choline
  30. Conclusions Ester formulation should not be applied in Georgia during similar conditions. Choline formulation offers the lowest potential for off-target movement from volatility.
  31. Comments?